To power our smarter coffee we leverage the latest advancements in functional and nutritional science, specifically in the field of nootropics. Just incase you'd like dive deeper, we've curated a list of scientific studies to help you better understand how each of our ingredients interact with your body.

L-Theanine

1. Owen, G. N., Parnell, H., De Bruin, E. A., & Rycroft, J. A. (2008). The combined effects of L-theanine and caffeine on cognitive performance and mood. Nutr Neurosci, 11(4), 193-198. doi:10.1179/147683008x301513

2. Gomez-Ramirez, M., Kelly, S. P., Montesi, J. L., & Foxe, J. J. (2009). The effects of L-theanine on alpha-band oscillatory brain activity during a visuo-spatial attention task. Brain Topogr, 22(1), 44-51. doi:10.1007/s10548-008-0068-z

CDP Choline

3. Wurtman, R. J., Regan, M., Ulus, I., & Yu, L. (2000). Effect of oral CDP-choline on plasma choline and uridine levels in humans. Biochem Pharmacol, 60(7), 989-992.

4. Weiss, G. B. (1995). Metabolism and actions of CDP-choline as an endogenous compound and administered exogenously as citicoline. Life Sci, 56(9), 637-660. 

Hordenine

5. Barwell, C. J., Basma, A. N., Lafi, M. A., & Leake, L. D. (1989). Deamination of hordenine by monoamine oxidase and its action on vasa deferentia of the rat. J Pharm Pharmacol, 41(6), 421-423.

Vitamin B6

6. Kennedy, D. O. (2016). B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy—A Review. Nutrients, 8(2), 68. doi:10.3390/nu8020068 

7. Percudani, R., & Peracchi, A. (2003). A genomic overview of pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent enzymes. EMBO Reports, 4(9), 850-854. doi:10.1038/sj.embor.embor914

Theacrine

8. He, H., Ma, D., Crone, L. B., Butawan, M., Meibohm, B., Bloomer, R. J., & Yates, C. R. (2017). Assessment of the Drug-Drug Interaction Potential Between Theacrine and Caffeine in Humans. J Caffeine Res, 7(3), 95-102. doi:10.1089/jcr.2017.0006

9. Ziegenfuss, T. N., Habowski, S. M., Sandrock, J. E., Kedia, A. W., Kerksick, C. M., & Lopez, H. L. (2016). A Two-Part Approach to Examine the Effects of Theacrine (TeaCrine(R)) Supplementation on Oxygen Consumption, Hemodynamic Responses, and Subjective Measures of Cognitive and Psychometric Parameters. J Diet Suppl, 1-15. doi:10.1080/19390211.2016.1178678

Curcumin

10. Kulkarni S.K., Bhutani M.K., Bishnoi M. “Antidepressant activity of curcumin: involvement of serotonin and dopamine system.”Psychopharmacology (Berlin). 2008 Dec;201(3):435-42.

11. Wang R., Li Y.B., Li Y.H., Xu Y., Wu H.L., Li X.J. “Curcumin protects against glutamate excitotoxicity in rat cerebral cortical neurons by increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor level and activating TrkB.”Brain Research. 2008 May 19;1210:84-91.

Rutaecarpine

12. Tsai, T. H., Chang, C. H., & Lin, L. C. (2005). Effects of Evodia rutaecarpa and rutaecarpine on the pharmacokinetics of caffeine in rats. Planta Med, 71(7), 640-645. doi:10.1055/s-2005-871270

13. Noh, K., Seo, Y. M., Lee, S. K., Bista, S. R., Kang, M. J., Jahng, Y., . . . Jeong, T. C. (2011). Effects of rutaecarpine on the metabolism and urinary excretion of caffeine in rats. Arch Pharm Res, 34(1), 119-125. doi:10.1007/s12272-011-0114-3

Magnesium

14. Murck, H. (2002). Magnesium and affective disorders. Nutr Neurosci, 5(6), 375-389. doi:10.1080/1028415021000039194

15. Murck, H., & Steiger, A. (1998). Mg2+ reduces ACTH secretion and enhances spindle power without changing delta power during sleep in men -- possible therapeutic implications. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 137(3), 247-252.

Phosphatidylserine

16. Monteleone, P., Maj, M., Beinat, L., Natale, M., & Kemali, D. (1992). Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men. Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 42(4), 385-388.

Boron

17. Pizzorno, L. (2015). Nothing Boring About Boron. Integrative Medicine: A Clinician’s Journal, 14(4), 35–48.

Zinc

18. Peuhkuri, K., Sihvola, N., & Korpela, R. (2012). Dietary factors and fluctuating levels of melatonin. Food & Nutrition Research, 56, 10.3402/fnr.v56i0.17252. http://doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v56i0.17252

Melatonin

19. Dollins, A. B., Zhdanova, I. V., Wurtman, R. J., Lynch, H. J., & Deng, M. H. (1994). Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 91(5), 1824-1828.

20. Zhdanova, I. V., Wurtman, R. J., Lynch, H. J., Ives, J. R., Dollins, A. B., Morabito, C., . . . Schomer, D. L. (1995). Sleep-inducing effects of low doses of melatonin ingested in the evening. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 57(5), 552-558. doi:10.1016/0009-9236(95)90040-3

MCT

21. Courchesne-Loyer, A., Fortier, M., Tremblay-Mercier, J., Chouinard-Watkins, R., Roy, M., Nugent, S., . . . Cunnane, S. C. (2013). Stimulation of mild, sustained ketonemia by medium-chain triacylglycerols in healthy humans: Estimated potential contribution to brain energy metabolism. Nutrition, 29(4), 635-640. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2012.09.009

22. Croteau, E., Castellano, C. A., Richard, M. A., Fortier, M., Nugent, S., Lepage, M., . . . Cunnane, S. C. (2018). Ketogenic Medium Chain Triglycerides Increase Brain Energy Metabolism in Alzheimer's Disease. J Alzheimers Dis, 64(2), 551-561. doi:10.3233/jad-180202

Chocamine®

23. Islam, R., Matsuzaki, K., Sumiyoshi, E., Hossain, M. E., Hashimoto, M., Katakura, M., … Shido, O. (2019). Theobromine Improves Working Memory by Activating the CaMKII/CREB/BDNF Pathway in Rats. Nutrients11(4), 888. doi:10.3390/nu11040888

24. Martínez-Pinilla, E., Oñatibia-Astibia, A., & Franco, R. (2015). The relevance of theobromine for the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption. Frontiers in pharmacology6, 30. doi:10.3389/fphar.2015.00030

Further research on the patented cocoa-based ingredient can be found on the manufacturers website, RFI Ingredients  

Hemp-Derived CBD

25. Crippa, J. A., Derenusson, G. N., Ferrari, T. B., Wichert-Ana, L., Duran, F. L., Martin-Santos, R., . . . Hallak, J. E. (2011). Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report. J Psychopharmacol, 25(1), 121-130. doi:10.1177/0269881110379283

26. Bergamaschi, M. M., Queiroz, R. H., Chagas, M. H., de Oliveira, D. C., De Martinis, B. S., Kapczinski, F., . . . Crippa, J. A. (2011). Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naive social phobia patients. Neuropsychopharmacology, 36(6), 1219-1226. doi:10.1038/npp.2011.6